Ruis, M., Rock, K., Hall, S., Horman, B., Patisaul, H.B., Stapleton, H.M. 2019. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Concentrate in the Fetal Portion of the Placenta: Implications for Thyroid Hormone Dysregulation and their Placental Transfer (Supplemental Material). Endocrinology, under review.

de Boer, J., Stapleton, H.M. 2019. Two Decades of Environmental Research on Flame Retardants- Taking Stock. Science, DOI: 10/1126/science.aax2054.

Doherty, B.T., Hoffman, K., Keil, A.P., Engel, S.M., Stapleton, H.M., Goldman, B., Olshan, A.F., Daniels, J.L. 2019. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate esters and behavioral development in young children in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Neurotoxicology, Accepted.

Mitchell, C., Reddam, A., Dasgupta, S., Zhang, S., Stapleton, H.M., Volz, D. 2019. Diphenyl Phosphate-Induced Toxicity During Embryonic Development. Environ. Sci. Technol., Accepted.

Kassotis, C.D., Kollitz, E., Hoffman, K., Sosa, J.A., Stapleton, H.M. 2019. Thyroid Receptor Antagonism as a Contributory Mechanism for Adipogenesis Induced by Environmental Mixtures in 3T3-L1 Cells. Sci. Total Environ., Accepted.

Dembsey, N.A., Brokaw, F.M., Stapleton, H.M., Dodson, R.E., Onasch, J., Jazan, E., Carignan, C.C. 2019. Intervention to Reduce Gymnast Exposure to Flame Retardants from Pit Foam: A Case Study., Environ. Internat., Accepted.

Kassotis, C.D., Stapleton, H.M. 2019. Endocrine-mediated mechanisms of metabolic disruption and new approaches to examine the public health threat. Frontiers in Endocrinology, Accepted



Gibson, E.A., Stapleton, H.M., Calero, L., Holmes, D., Burke, K., Martinez, R., Cortes, B., Nematollahi, A., Evans, D., Anderson, K., Herbstman, J.B. 2018. Differential Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Mother-Child Pairs. Chemosphere, 219:567-573. PMID:30553217

Lefevre, E., Redfern, L., Cooper, E.M., Stapleton, H.M., Gunsch, C.K. 2018. Acetate Promotes Microbial Reductive Debromination of Tetrabromobisphenol A in Anaerobic Wastewater Sludge. Science of the Total Environment, 656:959-968.

Tuttle, A.H., Salazar, G., Cooper, E.M., Stapleton, H.M., Zylka, M.J. 2018. Choice of Vehicle Affects Pyraclostrobin Toxicity in Mice. Chemosphere,218:501-506. PMID: 30497033

Hammel, S. Phillips, A., Hoffman, K., Stapleton. H.M., 2018. Evaluating the Use of Silicone Wristbands to Measure Personal Exposure to Brominated Flame Retardants. Environ. Sci. Technol.,52:11875-11885. NIHMSID: 998367

Kollitz, E., Kassotis, C.D., Hoffman, K., Ferguson, P.L., Sosa, J.A., Stapleton, H.M. 2018. Chemical Mixtures Isolated from House Dust Disrupt Thyroid Receptor Beta (TRb) Signaling. Environ. Sci. technol., 52: 11857-11864. NIHMSID: 998365

Stanifer, J.W., Stapleton, H.M., Tomokazu, S., Wittmer, A., Zhao, X., Boulware, L.E. 2018. Perfluorinated Chemicals as an Emerging Environmental Threat to Kidney Health: A Scoping Review. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 13(10): 1479-1492. PMCID:PMC6218824

Messerlian, C., Williams, P.L. , Mínguez-Alarcón, L., Carignan, C.C., Ford, J.B., Butt, C.M., Meeker, J.D., Stapleton, H.M., Souter, I., Hauser, R. 2018. Organophosphate Flame Retardant Metabolite Concentrations and Pregnancy Loss Among Women Conceiving with Assisted Reproduction Technology. Fertility & Sterility,110(6): 1137-1144. PMID:30396558

Hoffman, K., Hammel, S.C., Phillips, A.L., Lorenzo, A.M., Chen, A., Calafat, A.M., Ye, X., Webster, T.F., Stapleton, H.M., 2018. Biomarkers of Exposure to SVOCs in Children and Their Demographic Associations: The TESIE Study. Environment International, 119: 26-36. PMID: 29929048

Deziel, N., Yi, H., Stapleton, H.M., Huang, H., Zhao, N., Zhang, Y. 2018. Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Risk of Thyroid Cancer in Women. BMC Cancer,18(1):637. PMCID:PMC5989427

Bruinstroop, E., Dalan, R., Yang, C., Mong Bee, Y., Chandran K., Cho, L., Soh, S.B., Teo, E.K., T., S., L, M.K.S., Sinha, R.A., Sadananthan, S.A., Michael, N., Stapleton, H.M., Leung, C., Angus, P.W., Patel, S.K., Burrell, L.M., Chi, L.S., Fang, S.C., Velan, S.S., Yen, P.M. 2018. Low Dose Levothyroxine Reduces Intrahepatic Lipid Content In Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and NAFLK. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.103(7): 2698-2706. PMID:29718334

Kassotis, C.D., Nagel, S.C, Stapleton, H.M. 2018. Unconventional Oil and Gas Chemicals and Wastewater-Impacted Water Samples Promote Adipogenesis via PPARg-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms in 3T3-L1 Cells. Science of the Total Environment, 640-641:1601-1610. PMCID: PMC6197861

Hoffman, K., Stapleton, H.M., Lorenzo, A., Butt, C.M., Adair, L., Herring, A.H., Daniels, J.L. 2018. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates and Associations with Birthweight and Gestational Length. Environment International, 116:248-254. PMCID:PMC5971006

Phillips, A.L., Hammel, S.C., Hoffman, K., Lorenzo, A.M., Chen, A., Webster, T.F., Stapleton, H.M. 2018. Children’s Residential Exposure to Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants and Plasticizers: Investigating Exposure Pathways in the TESIE Study. Environment International, 116: 176-185. PMCID: PMC5980657

Holzem, R.M., Stapleton, H.M., Gunsch, C.K. 2018. Impacts of Biosolids on Indigenous Agricultural Soil Denitrifyinng Bacteria. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 144 (9): 0401809.

Ingle, M.E., Minguez-Alarcon, L., Carignan, C.C., Butt, C.M., Stapleton, H.M., Williams, P.L., Ford, J.B., Hauser, R., Meeker,J.D. 2018. The Association Between Urinary Concentrations of Phosphorous-Containing Flame Retardant Metabolites and Semen Parameters Among Men from a Check tor Updates Fertility Clinic. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 221(5): 809-815.

Mitchell, C.A., Dasgupta, S., Zhang, S., Stapleton, H.M., Volz, D.C. 2018. Disruption of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Alters Triphenyl Phosphate-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Zebrafish Embryos. Toxicological Sciences, 163(1): 307-318. PMCID:PMC5920347

Kollitz, E.M., De Carbonnel, L., Stapleton, H.M., Ferguson, P.L. 2018. The Affinity of Brominated Phenolic Compounds for Human and Zebrafish Thyroid Receptor β: Influence of Chemical Structure. Toxicological Sciences, 163(1): 226-239.

Holzem, R.M., Gardner, C.M., Stapleton, H.M., Gunsch, C.K. 2018. Using a Laboratory-Generated Biosolids to Evaluate the Microbial Ecotoxicity of Triclosan in a Simulated Land Application Scenario. Environ. Sci & Pollution Research, 25(11): 11084-11099.

Bello, A., Carignan, C.C., Xue, Y.L., Stapleton, H.M., Bello, D. 2018. Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Spray Polurethane Foam Applicators: Role of Dermal Exposure. Environ. Internat., 113: 55-65.

Rock, K.D., Horman, B., Phillips, A.L., McRitchie, S.L., Watson, S., Deese-Spruil, J., Sumner, S., Stapleton, H.M., Patisaul, H.B. 2018. EDC Impact: Molecular Effects of Developmental FM 550 Exposure in Wistar Rat Placenta and Fetal Forebrain. Endocrine Connections, 7(2): 305-324. PMCID: PMC5817967

Frederiksen, M., Stapleton, H.M., Vorkamp, K., Webster, T.F., Jensen, N.M., Sorensen, J.A., Nielsen, F., Knudsen, L.E., Sorensen, L.S., Clausen, P.A., Nielsen, J.B. 2018. Dermal Uptake and Percutaneous Penetration of Organophosphate esters in a Human Skin Ex Vivo Model. Chemosphere, 197:185-192. PMID: 29353672

Leonetti, C.P., Butt, C.M., Stapleton, H.M. 2018. Disruption of Thyroid Hormone Sulfotransferase Activity by Brominated Flame Retardant Chemicals in the Human Choriocarcinoma Placenta Cell Line, BeWo. Chemosphere, 197:81-88. PMCID: PMC5811394.

Carignan, C.C., Minguez-Alarcon, L., Williams, P.L., Meeker, J.D., Stapleton, H.M., Butt, C.M., Toth, T.L., Ford, J.B., Hauser, R. 2018. Paternal Urinary Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardant Metabolites, Fertility Measurements, and Pregnancy Outcomes among Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization. Environ. Internat., 111: 232-238.

Luz, A., Kassotis, C., Stapleton, H.M., Meyer, J.N. 2018. The High Production Volume Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Induces Triglyceride Accumulation Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Promotes Adipocyte Differentiation Independent of PPARg Activation in 3T3-L1 cells. Toxicology, 393: 150-159.

Kassotis, C., Kolllitz, E., Ferguson, P.L., Stapleton, H.M. 2018. Nonionic Ethoxylated Surfactants Induce Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells, Toxicological Sciences,

Lefevre, E., Bossa, N., Gardner, C.M., Gehrke, G.E., Cooper, E.M., Stapleton, H.M., Hsu-Kim, H., Gunsch, C.G. 2018. Biochar and activated carbon act as promising amendments for promoting the complete microbial debromination of tetrabromobisphenol A. Water Resources, 128: 102-110.



Hoffman, K., Lorenzo, A., Butt, C.M., Hammel, S.C., Henderson, B.B., Roman, S.A., Scheri, R.P., Stapleton, H.M., Sosa, J.A. 2017. Exposure to Flame Retardant Chemicals and Occurrence and Severity of Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Case-Control Study. Environ. Internat., Accepted.

Robel, A.E., Marshall, K., Dickinson, M., Lunderberg, D., Butt, C.M., Peaslee, G., Stapleton, H.M., Field, J.A. 2017. Closing the Mass Balance on Fluorine on Papers and Textiles. Environ. Sci. Technol, Accepted.

Thomas, M.B., Stapleton, H.M., Dills, R.L., Violette, H.D., Christakis, D.A., Sathyanarayana, S. 2017. Demographic and Dietary Risk Factors in Relation to Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Toddlers, Chemosphere, Accepted.

Hoffman, K., Gearhart-Serna, L., Lorber, M., Webster, T.F., Stapleton, H.M. 2017. Estimated Tris (1,3-dichloropropyl) Phosphate Exposure Levels for US Infants Suggests Potential Health Risks. Environ. Sci. Technol. Letters, Accepted.

Carignan, C.C., Minguez-Alarcon, L., Butt, C.M., Willilams, P.L., Meeker, J.D., Stapleton, H.M., Toth, T.L., Ford, J.B., Hauser, R. 2017. Urinary Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardant Metabolites and Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization. Environ. Health Perspect., Accepted.

Kassotis, C., Hoffman, K., Stapleton, H.M. 2017. Characterization of Adipogenic Activity of House Dust Extracts and Semi-Volatile Indoor Contaminants in 3T3-L1 Cells. Environ. Sci. Technol., Accepted.

Siebenaler, R., Cameron, R., Butt, C.M., Hoffman, K., Higgins, C.P., Stapleton, H.M. 2017. Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and Associations with Behavioral Attributes. Chemosphere, Accepted.

Smythe, T., Butt, C.M., Stapleton, H.M., Pleskach, K., Ratnayake, G., Yoon Song, C., Riddell, N., Konstantinov, A., Tomy, G. 2017. Impacts of Unregulated Novel Brominated Flame Retardants on Human Liver Thyroid Deiodination and Sulfotransferation. Environ. Sci. Technol., Accepted.

Carignan, C.C., Butt, C.M, Stapleton, H.M., Meeker, J.D., Minguez-Alarcon, L., Williams, P.L., Hauser, R. 2017. Influence of storage vial material on measurement of organophosphate flame retardant metabolites in urine. Chemosphere, Accepted.

Castorina, R., Butt, C.M., Stapleton, H.M., Avery, D., Harley, K.G., Holland, N., Eskenazi, B., Bradman, A., 2017. Flame Retardants and Their Metabolites in the Homes and Urine of Pregnant Women Residing in California (the CHAMACOS cohort). Chemosphere, Accepted. http://dx.doi.orga/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.03.076.

Ferguson, P.L., Stapleton, H.M. 2017. Comment on “Mutagenic Azo Dyes, Rather Than Flame Retardants, Are the Predominant Brominated Compounds in House Dust”. Environmental Science & Technology, Accepted.

Soubry, A., Hoyo, C., Butt, C.M., Fieuws, S., Price, T.M., Murphy, S.K., Stapleton, H.M. 2017. Human Exposure to Flame-Retardants is Associate with Aberrant DNA Methylation at Imprinted Genes in Sperm. Environmental Epigenetics, Accepted.

Hoffman, K., Butt, C.M., Webster, T.F., Preston, E.V., Hammel, S.C., Makey, C., Lorenzo, A.M., Cooper, E.M., Carignan, C., Meeker, J.D., Hauser, R., Soubry, A., Murphy, S.K., Price, T.M., Hoyo, C., Mendelsoh, E., Congleton, J., Daniels, J.L., Stapleton, H.M. 2017. Temporal Trends in Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants in the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. Letters., Accepted.

Preston, E.V., McClean, M.D., Claus Henn, B., Stapleton, H.M., Braverman, L.E., Pearce, E.N., Makey, C.M., Webster, T.F. 2017. Associations Between Urinary Diphenyl Phosphate and Thyroid Function. Environ. Internat., Accepted.

Cowell, W.J., Stapleton, H.M., Holmes, D., Calero, L., Tobon, C., Perzanowski, M., and Herbstman, J.B. 2017. Prevalence of Historical and Replacement Brominated Flame Retardant Chemicals in New York City Homes. Emerging Contaminants, Accepted.

Kassotis, Christopher D., Masse, L., Kim, S., Schlezinger, J.J., Webster. T.F., and Stapleton, H.M. 2017. Characterizatio of Adipogenic Chemicals in Three Different Cell Culture Systems: Implications for Reproducability Based on Cell Source and Handling., Sci. Reports, Accepted.

Lewis, J., Hollingsworth, J., Chartier, R., Cooper, E., Foster, W., Gomes, G., Kussin, P., MacInnis, J., Padhi, B., Panigrahi, P., Rodes, C., Ryde, I., Singha, A., Stapleton, H., Thornburg, J., Young, C., Meyer, C., Pattanayak, S., 2017. Biogas Stoves Reduce Firewood Use, Household Air Pollution, and Hospital Visits in Odisha India., Environ. Sci. Technol, Accepted.

Hoffman, K., Sosa, J.A., Stapleton, H.M. 2017. Do Flame Retardant Chemicals Increase the Risk for Thyroid Dysregulation and Cancer? Current Opinion in Oncology, Accepted.

Hoffman, K., Lorenzo, A., Butt, C.M., Adair, L., Herring, A.H., Stapleton, H.M., Daniels, J. 2017. Predictors of urinary flame retardant concentration among pregnant women. Environ. Internat., 98:96-101.



Leonetti, C., Butt, C.M, Hoffman, K., Hammel, S.C., Miranda, M.L., Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Brominated Flame Retardants in Placental Tissues: Associations with Infant Sex and Thyroid Hormone Endpoints. Environ. Health. 15: 113-122. PMCID: PMC5123327.

Volz, D., Leet, J.K., Chen, A., Stapleton, H.M., Katiyar, N., Kaundal, R., Yu, Y., Wang, Y.S. 2016. Tris (1,3-dichlor-2-propyl)phosphate Induces Genome-Wide Hypomethylation within Early Zebrafish Embryos. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(18): 10255-10263.

Cooper, E., Kroeger, G., Davis Warnell, K., Clark, C.R., Ferguson, P.L. and Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Results from Screening Polyurethane Foam Based Consumer Products for Flame Retardant Chemicals: Assessing Impacts on the Change in the Furniture Flammability Standards. Environ. Sci. Technol., 50(19): 10653-10660. PMCID:

Carignan, C.C., Fang, M., Stapleton, H.M., Heiger-Bernays, W., McClean, M.D., Webster. T.F. 2016. Urinary Biomarkers of Flame Retardant Exposure Among US Collegiate Gymnasts. Environ. Internat. 94:362-368.

Lefevre, E., Cooper, E., Stapleton, H.M., and Gunsch,C.K. 2016. Anaerobic sludge microbial
community adaptation to tetrabromobisphenol A and identification of taxa responsible for
its degradation, PLOS One, 11(7).

Macaulay, L.J., Chernick, M., Chen, A., Hinton,D.E., Bailey, J.M., Kullman, S.K., Levin, E.D. and Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Exposure to a PBDE/OH-BDE Mixtures Alters Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Development. Environ. Chem. Toxicol. DOI: 10.1002/etc.3535

Butt, C.M., Hoffman, K., Chen, Al., Lorenzo, A., Congleton, J. and Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Regional Comparisons of Organophosphate Flame Retardants (PFRs) Urinary Metabolites and Tetrabromobenzoic Acid (TBBA) in Mother-Toddler Pairs from California and New Jersey. Environ. International. 94:627-634.

Phillips, A., Chen, A., Rock, K.D., Horman, B., Patisaul, H. and Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Transplacental and Lactational Transfer of Firemaster 550 Components in Dosed Wistar Rats. Toxicological Sciences, 153(2) 246-257.

Gomes, G., Ward, P., Lorenzo, A., Hoffman, K., Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Characterizing the Flame Retardant Applications and Potential Human Exposure in Backpacking Tents. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(10): 5338-5345.

Hammel, S. Hoffman, K., Webster, T.F., Anderson, K. Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Measuring Personal Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants using Silicone Wristbands and Hand Wipes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(8): 4483-4491.

Su, G., Letcher, R.J., Yu, H., Gooden, D.M., Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Determination of Glucuronide Conjugates of Hydroxyl Triphenyl Phosphate (TPHP) Metabolites in Human Urine and Its Use as a Biomarker of TPHP Exposure. Chemosphere, 149: 314-319.

Czaplicki, L.M., Cooper, E., Ferguson, P.L., Stapleton, H.M., Vilgalys, R. and Gunsch, C.K. 2016. “A New Perspective on Sustainable Soil Remediation-Case Study Suggests Novel Fungal Genera Could Facilitate in situ Biodegradation of Hazardous Contaminants”, Remediation, 26(2); 59-72.

Hoffman, K., Sjodin, A., Webster. T.F. Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Toddler’s Behavior and Its Impacts on Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. J. Exposure Science & Environ. Epidemiol. doi:10.1038/jes.2016.11.
Butt, C.M., Miranda, M.L., Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Development of an Analytical Method to Quantify PBDEs, OH-BDEs, HBCDs, 2,4,6-TBP, EH-TBB and BEH-TEBP in Human Serum. Analy. Biol. Chem., 408(10): 2449-2459.

Leonetti, C., Butt, C.M., Hoffman, K., Miranda, M., Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and 2,4,6-Tribromophenol in Human Placental Tissues. Environ. Internat., 88:23-29.

Barbaruska, V. Stapleton.H.M. 2016. Halogenated Flame Retardant Use in Residential Settings- Are They Safe For Our Health? Fire Protection Engineering, 4th Quarter, 11-22.

Mendelsohn,E., Hagopian, A., Hoffman, K., Butt, C.M., Lorenzo, A., Congleton, J., Webster, T.F. Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Nail Polish as a Source of Exposure to Triphenyl Phosphate. Environ. International, 86:45-51.



Hoffman, K., Butt, C.M., Chen, A., Limkakeng, A.T., Stapleton, H.M. 2015. High Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Infants: Associations with Baby Products. Environ. Sci. Technol., 49:14554-14559.

Macaulay, L.J., Chen, A., Rock, K., Dishaw, L., Dong, W., Hinton, D.E., Stapleton, H.M. 2015. Developmental toxicity of the PBDE Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 in Zebrafish and the Potential Role of Thyroid Receptor β. Aquatic Toxicol., 168: 38-47. PMCID: PMC4618599

Miranda, M.L., Anthopolos, R., Wolkin, A., Stapleton, H.M. 2015. Associations of Birth Outcomes with Maternal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Thyroid Hormones During Pregnancy. Environ. International: 85: 244-253.

Fang, M., Webster, T.F., Stapleton, H.M. 2015. Effect-Directed Analysis of Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Nuclear Receptors (PPARγ1) Ligands in Indoor Dust. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:10065-10073.

Fang, M., Webster, T.F., Stapleton, H.M. 2015. Activation of Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Nuclear Receptor (PPARγ) by Semi-Volatile Compounds (SVOCs) and Chemical Mixtures in Indoor Dust. Environ. Sci. Technol., 49:10057-10064.

Roberts, S., C., Bianco, A., Stapleton, H.M. 2015. Disruption of Type 2 Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activity in Cultured Human Glial Cells by Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. Chem. Research. Toxicol., 28(6): 1265-1274.

Macaulay, L.J., Bailey, J.M., Levin, E.D., Stapleton, H.M. 2015. Persisting effects of a PBDE metabolite, 6-OH-BDE-47, on larval and juvenile zebrafish swimming behavior. Neurotoxicology & Teratology., 52:119-126. PMCID: PMC4644107

Maley, A.M., Falk, K.A., Hoover, L., Earlwine, E.B., Seymour, M.D., DeYoung, P.A., Blum, A., Stapleton, H.M., Peaslee, G.F. 2015. Detection of Halogenated Flame Retardants in Polyurethane Foam by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 358:21-25.

Scanlan, L.D., Loguinov, A.V., Teng, Q., Antczak, P., Dailey, K.P., Nowinski, D., Kornbluh, J., Lin, X.X., Lachenauer, E., Arai, A., Douglas, N.K., Falcianai, D., Stapleton, H.M., Vulpe, C.D. 2015. Gene Transcription, Metabolite, an Lipid Porfiling in Eco-Indicator Daphnia magna Indicative Diverse Mechanisms of Toxicity by Legacy and Emerging Flame-Retardants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(12): 7400-7410.

Su, G., Letcher, R.J., Crump, D., Gooden, D.M., Stapleton, H.M. 2015. In Vitro Metabolism of the Flame Retardant Triphenyl Phosphate in Chicken Embryonic Hepatocytes and the Importance of the Hyroxylation Pathway. Environ. Sci. Technol. Letters, 2(4): 100-104.

Isales, G., Hipszer, R., Raftery, T., Chen,A., Stapleton, H.M., Volz, D. 2015. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor. Aquatic Toxicol., 161: 221-230.

Davis, E.F. Gunsch, C.K. Stapleton, H.M. 2015. Fate of Flame Retardants and the Antimicrobial Triclosan in Planted and Unplanted Biosolid-Amended Soils. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 34(5): 968-976.

Dong, W., Macaulay, L.J., Kwok, W.H., Hinton, D.E., Ferguson, P.L. Stapleton, H.M. 2015. The PBDE Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 Affects Melanin Pigmentation and THRb mRNA Expression in the Eye of Zebrafish Embryos, Endocrine Disruptors, DOI: 10.4161/23273739.2014.969072.

Fang, M., Webster, T.F., Ferguson, P.L., Stapleton, H.M. 2015. Characterizing the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPARγ) Ligand Binding Potential of Several Major Flame Retardants, Their Metabolites, and Chemical Mixtures in House Dust. Environ. Health Perspect., 123(2): 166-172.

Freitag, A.R., Thayer, L.R., Leonetti, C., Stapleton, H.M., Hamlin, H.J. 2015. Effects of Elevated Nitrate on Endocrine Function in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar. Aquaculture 436:8-12.

Hoffman, K., Garantziotis, S., Birnbaum, L.S., and Stapleton, H.M. 2015. Monitoring Indoor Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants: Hand Wipes and House Dust. Environ. Health Perspect. 123(2): 160-165. PMCID: PMC4314253

Webster, T.F., Stapleton, H.M., McClean, M.D. 2015. Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Indoor Environments. Fire Technology, 51(1): 85-95.



Noyes, P.D., Stapleton, H.M. 2014. PBDE flame retardants: Toxicokinetics and thyroid hormone endocrine disruption in fish. Endocrine Disruptors. DOI:10.4161/endo.29430.

Dishaw, L., Macaulay, L., Roberts, S.C. Stapleton, H.M. 2014. Exposures, Mechanisms, and Impacts of Endocrine-Active Flame Retardants. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 19:125-133.

Dishaw, L., Hunter, D.L, Padnos, B., Padilla, S., Stapleton, H.M. 2014. Developmental Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants Elicits Overt Toxicity and Alters Behavior in Early Life Stage Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicol. Sci. 142(2): 445-454. PMCID: PMC4250848.

Fang, M., Getzinger, G.J., Cooper, E.M., Clark, B.W., Garner, L.V.T., Di Giulio, R.T., Ferguson, P.L., Stapleton, H.M. 2014. Effect-Directed Analysis of Elizabeth River Porewater: Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 33(12): 2767-2774.

Fang, M., Stapleton, H.M. 2014. Evaluating the Bioaccessibility of Flame Retardants in House Dust Using an In Vitro Tenax Bead-Assisted Sorptive Physiologically Based Method. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48(22): 13323-13330.

Butt, C.M., Congleton, J., Hoffman, K., Fang, M.L. Stapleton, H.M. 2014. Metabolites of Organophosphate Flame Retardants and 2-Ethylhexyl Tetrabromobenzoate in Urine from Paired Mothers and Toddlers. Environ. Sci. Technol., 48(17): 10432-10438.

Martin, N.P., de Velasco, E.M.F., Mizuno, F., Scappini, E.L., Gloss, B., Erxleben, C., Williams, J.G., Stapleton, H.M., Gentile, S., Armstrong, D.L. 2014. A Rapid Cytoplasmic Mechanism for PI3 Kinase Regulation by the Nuclear Thyroid Hormone Receptor, TR beta, and Genetic Evidence for Its Role in the Maturation of Mouse Hippocampal Synapses In Vivo. Endocrinology, 155(9): 3713-3724.

Pillai, H., Fang, M., Beglov, D., Kozakov, D., Vajada, S., Stapleton, H.M., Webster, T.F., Schlezinger, J.J. 2014. The Flame Retardant Firemaster 550 Contains PPARγ Ligands That Induce Adipogenesis and Suppress Osteogenesis. Environ. Health Perspect., 122(11): 1225-1232.

Hoffman, K., Fang, M., Horman, B., Patisaul, H., Garantziotis, S., Birnbaum, L.S. Stapleton, H.M. 2014. Urinary Tetrabromobenzoic acid (TBBA) as a Biomarker of Exposure to the Flame Retardant Mixture, Firemaster® 550. Environ Health Perspect; 122(9): 963-969. PMCID: PMC4154220

Belcher, S., Cookman, CJ, Patisaul, H., Stapleton, H.M. 2014. In vitro assessment of human nuclear hormone receptor activity and cytotoxicity of the flame retardant mixture FM 550 and its triarylphosphate and brominated components. Toxicol. Letters: 228(2): 93-102.

Holzem, R., Gunsch, C.K. Stapleton, H.M. 2014. Determining the Ecological Impacts of Organic Contaminants in Biosolids Using a High-Throughput Colorimetric Denitrification Assay: A Case Study with Antimicrobial Agents. Environ. Sci. Technol.: 48(3): 1646-1655.

Stapleton, H.M., Misenheimer, J.C., Hoffman, K. and Webster. T.F. 2014. Flame Retardant Associations Between Children’s Handwipes and House Dust. Chemosphere: 116: 54-60. PMCID: PMC4116470

Keller, A., Raju, N., Webster, T.F., Stapleton, H.M. 2014. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. Letters, 1(2): 152-155.

Noyes, P.D., Lema, S.C., Roberts, S.C., Cooper, E.M., and Stapleton. H.M. 2014. A Rapid Method for the Measurement of Circulating Thyroid Hormones in Low Volumes of Teleost Fish Plasma by LC-ESI/MS/MS. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(3): 715-726.

Hoffman, K., Daniels, J.L., Stapleton. H.M. 2014. Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Their Variability in Pregnant Women. Environ. Internat. 63:169-172. PMCID: PMC3932676.

Levin, E.D., Cauley, M., Johnson, J., Cooper, E.M., Stapleton, H.M., Ferguson, P.L., Seidler, F.J., Slotkin, T.A. 2014. Prenatal Dexamethasone Augments the Neurobehavioral Teratology of Chlorpyrifos: Significance for Maternal Stress and Preterm Labor. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 41: 35-42.

Muzzio, A.M., Noyes, P.D., Stapleton, H.M., Lema S.C. 2014. Tissue distribution and thyroid hormone effects on mRNA abundance for membrane transporters Mct8, Mct10, and organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) in a teleost fish. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part A. 167:77-89.



Carignan, C.C., Heiger-Bernays, W., McClean, M.D., Roberts, S.C., Stapleton, H.M., Sjodin, A., and Webster, T.F. 2013.  Flame Retardant Exposure among Collegiate US Gymnasts. Environ. Sci. Technol., 47(23): 13848-13856.

Butt, C.M., Stapleton, H.M. 2013. Inhibition of thyroid hormone sulfotransferase activity by brominated flame retardants and halogenated phenolics. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 26(11): 1692-1702. PMCID:PMC3836566.

Meeker, J., Cooper, E.M. Stapleton, H.M. Hauser, R.D. 2013. Exploratory analysis of urinary metabolites of phosphorus-containing flame retardants in relation to markers of male reproductive health. Endocrine Disruptors. DOI 10.4161/endo.26306.

Clark, B., Cooper, E.M., Stapleton, H.M. Di Giulio, R.D. 2013. Compound- and mixture-specific differences in resistance to PAHs and PCB-126 among Fundulus heteroclitus subpopulations throughout the Elizabeth River estuary (Virginia, USA). Environ. Sci. Technol., 47(18): 10556-10566.

Noyes, P.D., Lema, S.C., Macaulay, L.J., Douglas, N.K., and Stapleton, H.M. 2013. Low Level Exposure to the Flame Retardant BDE-209 Reduces Thyroid Hormone Levels and Disrupts Thyroid Signaling in Fathead Minnows. Environ. Sci. Technol., 47(17): 10012-10021. PMCID: PMC3778448.

Lohman, R., Stapleton, H.M., Hites, R.A. 2013. Science Should Guide TSCA Reform. Environ. Sci. Technol., 47(16): 8995-8996.

Watkins, D.J., McClean, M.D., Frasier, A.J., Weinberg, J., Stapleton, H.M., Webster, T.F. 2013. Associations between PBDEs in office air, dust, and surface wipes. Environ. Internat., 59:124-132.

McGee, S.P., Konstantinov, A., Stapleton, H.M., Volz, D.C. 2013. Aryl phosphate esters within a major PentaBDE Replacement Product Induce Cardiotoxicity in Developing Zebrafish Embryos: Potential role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Toxicol. Sci. 133(1): 144-156.

Meeker, J.D., Cooper, E.M., Stapleton, H.M. Hauser, R. 2013. Urinary metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants: Temporal variability and correlations with house dust concentrations. Environ. Health Perspect. 121(5): 580-585.

Slotkin, T.A., Cooper, E.M., Stapleton, H.M., Seidler, F.J. 2013. Does thyroid disruption contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos? Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 36: 284-287.

Fang, M., Webster, T.F., Gooden, D., Cooper, E.M., McClean, M.D., Carignan, C.C., Mackey, C., Stapleton, H.M. 2013. Investigating a novel flame retardant known as V6: Measurements in baby products, house dust and car dust. Environ. Sci Technol. 47:4449-4454. PMCID: PMC3650476.

Dong, W., Macaulay, L.J., Kwok, K.W.H., Hinton, D.E., Stapleton, H.M. 2013. Using whole mount in situ hybridization to examine thyroid hormone deiodinase expression in embryonic and larval zebrafish: A tool for examining OH-BDE toxicity to early life stages. Aquat. Toxicol. 132-133 (190-199). PMCID: PMC3642849.

Carignan, C., McClean, M.D., Cooper, E., Watkins, D., Fraser, A., Heiger-Bernays,W., Stapleton, H.M. Webster, T.F. 2013. Predictors of Tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate Metabolite in the Urine of Office Workers, Environ. Internation., 55(56-61). PMCID: PMC3666188.

Allen, J.G., Stapleton, H.M. Vallerino, J., McNeely, E., McClean, M.D., Harrad, S.J., Rauert, C., Spengler, J.D. 2013. Exposure to flame retardant chemicals on commercial airplanes. Environ. Health. 12:17.

Johnson, P.J., Stapleton, H.M., Mukherjee, B., Hauser, R., Meeker, J.D. 2012. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men. Sci. Total Environ., 445-446 (177-184). PMCID: PMC3572297.

Patisaul, H., Roberts, S.C., Mabrey, N., McCaffrey, K.A., Gear, R.B., Braun, J., Belcher, S.M., Stapleton, H.M. 2013. Accumulation and Endocrine Disrupting Effects of the Flame Retardant Mixture Firemaster 550 in Rats: An Exploratory Assessment. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 27(2):124-136. PMCID: PMC3788594.



Stapleton, H.M. Sharma, S., Getzinger, G., Ferguson, P.L., Gabriel, M, Webster, T.F., Blum, A. 2012. Novel and High Volume Use Flame Retardants in US Couches Reflective of the 2005 PentaBDE Phase Out. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46(24): 13432- 13439.PMCID: PMC3525014

McGee, S.P., Cooper, E., Stapleton H.M., D. Volz. 2012. Early Zebrafish Embryogenesis Is Susceptible to Developmental TDCPP Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(11): 1586-1591. PMCID: PMC3556627

Stapleton, H.M. Eagle, S., Sjodin, A., Webster, T.F. 2012. Serum PBDEs in a North Carolina Toddler Cohort: Associations with Hand Wipes, House Dust and Socioeconomic Variables. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(7): 1049-1054. PMCID: PMC3404669

Klosterhaus, S., Stapleton, H.M., LaGuardia, M.J., Greig, D.J. 2012. Brominated and Chlorinated Flame Retardants in San Francisco Bay Sediments and Wildlife. Environment International, 47:56-65.

Roberts, S.C., Macaulay, L.J., Stapleton, H.M. 2012. In Vitro Metabolism of the Brominated Flame Retardants 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5 tetrabromobenzoate (TBB) and Bis-2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5 tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) in Human and Rat Tissues. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 25(1435-1441) PMCID: PMC3398233

Buttke, D.E., Wolkin, A., Stapleton, H.M., Miranda, M.L. 2012. Associations between serum levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) flame retardants and environmental and behavioral factors in pregnant women. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. doi:10.1038/jes.2012.67.

Bearr, J.S., Mitchelmore, C.L., Roberts, S.C., Stapleton. H.M. 2012. Species specific differences in the in vitro metabolism of the flame retardant mixture, Firemaster® BZ 54. Aquatic Toxicology, 124-125: 41-47. PMCID:PMC3835519.

Ashley, J.T.F., Vasquez, M.A., Zelanko, P., McKinley, E., Schafer, M., Zaoudeh, L., Horwitz, R., Stapleton, H.M., Velinsky, D.J. 2012. Trophic Transfer of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Tidal Freshwater Marsh. Chemistry and Ecology, 28(4):305-325.

McClain, V, Stapleton, H.M., Tilton F., Gallagher, E.P. 2012. BDE 49 and Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C- Toxicology and Pharmacology, 155(2): 253-258.

Davis, E.F., Klosterhaus, S., Stapleton, H.M. 2012, Measurement of Flame Retardants and Triclosan in Municipal Sewage Sludge and Biosolids. Environ. Internat. 40: 1-7.

Watkins, D.J., Mclean, M.D., Fraser, A.J. Weinberg, J. Stapleton, H.M., Sjodin, A. and Webster, T.F. , 2012, Impact of Dust from Multiple Microenvironments and Diet on PentaBDE Body Burden. Environ Sci & Technol, 46(2): 1192-1200. PMCID: PMC3268060

Fraser, A.J.,Webster, T.F. Watkins, D.J., Nelson, J.W., Stapleton, H.M. Calafat, A.F., Kato, K., Shoeib,M., Viera, V.M, McClean,M.D., 2012. Polyfluorinated Compounds in Serum Linked to Indoor Air in Office Environments, Environ. Sci. Technol, 46(2): 1209-1215. PMCID: PMC3262923



Tomy, G., Palace, V., Marvin, C., Stapleton, H.M., and Covaci, A. 2011. Biotransformation of HBCD in Biological Systems Can Confound Temporal Studies. Environ. Sci. Technol., 45(2):364-365.

Stapleton, H.M., Eagle, S. Anthopolos, R., Wolkin, A., Miranda, M.L. 2011. Associations Between Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Flame Retardants, Phenolic Metabolites, and Thyroid Hormones During Pregnancy. Environ. Health Perspect., 119(10):1454-1459. PMCID: PMC3230439

Watkins, D., McClean, M.D., Fraser, A.J., Weinberg, J., Stapleton, H.M., Sjodin, A., and Webster, T.F. 2011. Exposure to PBDEs in the Office Environment: Evaluating the Relationships Between Dust, Handwipes and Serum. Environ. Health Perspect. 119(9): 1247-1252. PMCID: PMC3230398

Cooper, E., Covaci, A., van Nuijs, A.L.N., Webster, T.F., and Stapleton, H.M. 2011. Analysis of the Flame Retardant Metabolites Bis (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (BDCPP) and Diphenyl Phosphate (DPP) in Urine Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(7):2123-2132. PMCID:PMC3718013.

Jung, D., Matson, C.W., Collins, L.B., Laban, G., Stapleton, H.M., Bickham, J.W., Swenberg, J.A., Di Giulio, R.T. 2011. Genotoxicity in Atlantic Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a PAH-contaminated Superfund Site on the Elizabeth River, Virginia. Ecotoxicology,20(8):1890-1899. PMCID: PMC3203518

Butt, C.M., Wang, D., Stapleton, H.M. 2011. Halogenated Phenolic Contaminants Inhibit the In Vitro Activity of the Thyroid Regulating Deiodinases in Human Liver. Toxicological Sciences,124(2):339-347. PMCID: PMC3216408

Dishaw, L.V., Powers, C.M., Ryde, I.T., Roberts, S.C., Seidler, F.J., Slotkin, T.A., Stapleton, H.M. 2011. Is the PentaBDE Replacement, Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP), a Developmental Neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 Cells. Toxicol. Appl. Pharm., 256(3):281-289. PMCID: PMC3089808

Noyes, P.D., Hinton, D.E., Stapleton, H.M. 2011. Accumulation and Debromination of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) in Juvenile Fathead Minnows (Pimpephales Promelas) Induces Thyroid Disruption and Liver Alterations. Toxicological Sciences, 122(2): 265-274. PMCID: PMC3155082

Stapleton, H.M., Klosterhaus, S., Keller, A., Ferguson, P.L., van Bergen, S., Cooper, E., Webster, T.F., and Blum, A. 2011. Identification of Flame Retardants in Polyurethane Foam Collected from Baby Products. Environ. Sci. Technol., 45: 5323-5331. PMCID: PMC3113369

Roberts, S.C., Noyes, P.D., Gallagher, E.P., Stapleton, H.M. 2011. Species-Specific Differences and Structure-Activity Relationships in the Debromination of PBDE Congeners in Three Fish Species. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45(5):1999-2005. PMCID: PMC3047442