Recent and ongoing research by the lab involves the use of silicone wristbands as personal passive sampling devices to assess individual exposure to semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). As silicone absorbs chemicals similarly to human skin and measurements from biomarkers tend to be correlated with wristband measurements, silicone wristbands are a valuable tool to measure what someone is exposed to through air and skin contact, especially when considering mixtures of chemicals. We have used this approach to conduct studies in populations including firefighters, children, pet owners, and pregnant women.


For further information, see our publications on this topic (linked below).  

Frequently Asked Questions

General information for study participants

If you are participating in a wristband study, you do not need to, nor should you, change your daily activities. Wearing the wristband all the time while you continue your routine behavior provides researchers with the most accurate information on chemical exposures. If you will be doing something outside your normal routine (such as traveling), speak to your research coordinator before wearing the wristband. 

Associated Publications

Samon, S., Hoffman, K., Herkert, N., Stapleton, H.M. 2024. Chemical Uptake into Silicone Wristbands Over a Five Day Period. Environmental Pollution, 349: 123877.

Samon, S., Herkert, N., Ghassabian, A., Liu, H., Hammel, S.C., Trasande, L., Stapleton, H.M., Hoffman, K. 2023. Measuring Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Exposures During Pregnancy Using Silicone Wristbands. Chemosphere, 339: 139778. 

Young, A.S., Herkert, N., Stapleton, H.M., Coull, B.A., Hauser, R., Zoeller, T., Behnisch, P.A., Felzel, E., Brouwer, A., Gallen, J.G. 2023. Hormone Receptor Activities of Complex Mixtures of Known and Suspect Chemicals in Personal Silicone Wristband Samplers Worn in Office Buildings. Chemosphere, 315: 137705. 

Samon, S.M., Hammel, S.C., Stapleton, H.M., Anderson, K.A. 2022. Silicone Wristbands as Personal Passive Sampling Devices: Current Knowledge, Recommendations for Use and Future Directions. Environment International, 169: 107339.

Levasseur, J.L., Hoffman, K., Herkert, N.J., Cooper, E., Hay, D., Stapleton, H.M. 2022. Characterizing Firefighter’s Exposure to Over 130 SVOCs Using Silicone Wristbands: A Pilot Study Comparing On-Duty and Off-Duty Exposures. Science of the Total Environment, 834: 155237.

Reddam, A., Herkert, N., Stapleton, H.M., Volz, D.C. 2022. Partial Dust Removal in Vehicles Does Not Mitigate Human Exposure to Organophosphate Esters. Environmental Research, 205: 112525.

Wise, C.F., Hammel, S.C., Herkert, N., Ospina, M., Calafat, A.M., Breen, M., Stapleton, H.M. 2022. Comparative Assessment of Pesticide Exposures in Domestic Dogs and Their Owners Using Silicone Passive Samplers and Biomonitoring. Environmental Science & Technology, 56 (2), 1149-1161.

Hoffman, K., Levasseur, J.L., Zhang, S., Hay, D., Herkert, N.J., Stapleton, H.M. 2021. Monitoring Human Exposure to Organophosphate Esters: Comparing Silicone Wristbands with Spot Urine Samples as Predictors of Internal Dose. Environmental Science and Technology Letters, 8(9): 805-810.

Young, A.S., Herkert, N., Stapleton, H.M., Guillermo Codeno Laurent, J., Jones, E.R., MacNaughton, P., Coull, B.A., James-Todd, T., Hauser, R., Lahaie Luna, M., Chung, Y.S., Allen, J.G. 2021. Chemical Contaminant Exposures Assessed Using Silicone Wristbands Among Occupants in Office Buildings in the USA, UK, China, and India. Environment International, 156: 106727.

Levasseur, J., Hammel, S.C., Hoffman, K., Phillips, A.L., Zhang, S., Ye, X., Calafat, A.M., Webster, T.F., Stapleton, H.M. 2021. Young Children’s Exposure to Phenols in the Home: Associations Between House Dust, Hand Wipes, Silicone Wristbands, and Urinary Biomarkers. Environment International, 147: 106317. 

Kassotis, C.D., Herkert, N.J., Hammel, S.C., Hoffman, K., Xia, Q., Kullman, S.W., Sosa, J.A., Stapleton, H.M., 2020. Thyroid Receptor Antagonism of Chemicals Extracted from Personal Silicone Wristbands within a Papillary Thyroid Cancer Pilot StudyEnvironmental Science & Technology54(23): 15296–15312. 

Wise, C., Hammel, S.C., Herkert, N., Ma, J., Motsinger-Reif, A., Stapleton, H.M., Breen, M. 2020. Comparative Exposure Assessment Using Silicone Passive Samplers Indicates Domestic Dogs are Sentinels to Support Human Health Research. Environmental Science & Technology, 54(12): 7409-7419. 

 Hammel, S.C., Hoffman, K., Phillips, A.L., Levasseur, J., Lorenzo, A.M., Webster, T.F., Stapleton, H.M. 2020. Comparing the Use of Silicone Wristbands, Hand Wipes, and Dust to Evaluate Children’s Exposure to Flame Retardants and Plasticizers. Environmental Science & Technology, 54(7): 4484-4494.

Reddam, A., Tait, G., Herkert, N., Hammel, S.C., Stapleton, H.M., Volz, D.C. 2020. Longer Commutes are Associated with Increased Human Exposure to Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate. Environment International, 136: 105499. 

Escher, B.I., Stapleton, H.M., Schymanski, E.L. 2020. Tracking Complex Mixtures of Chemicals in our Changing Environment. Science, 367(6476): 388-392.

Craig, J.A., Ceballos, D.M., Fruh, V., Petropoulos, Z.E., Allen, J.G., Calafat, A.M., Ospina, M., Stapleton, H.M., Hammel, S.C., Gray, R., Webster, T.F. 2019. Exposure of Nail Salon Workers to Phthalates, Di(2-ethylhexyl) Terephthalate, and Organophosphate Esters: A Pilot Study. Environmental Science & Technology, 53(24): 14630-14637.

Gibson, E.A., Stapleton, H.M., Calero, L., Holmes, D., Burke, K., Martinez, R., Cortes, B., Nematollahi, A., Evans, D., Anderson, K.A., Herbstman, J.B. 2019. Differential Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Mother-Child Pairs. Chemosphere, 219: 567-573.

Hammel, S.C., Phillips, A.L., Hoffman, K., Stapleton. H.M. 2018. Evaluating the Use of Silicone Wristbands to Measure Personal Exposure to Brominated Flame Retardants. Environmental Science & Technology, 52(20): 11875-11885. 

Hammel, S.C., Hoffman, K., Webster, T.F., Anderson, K.A., Stapleton, H.M. 2016. Measuring Personal Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants Using Silicone Wristbands and Hand Wipes. Environmental Science & Technology, 50(8): 4483-4491. 

abk61@duke.eduPersonal Sampling with Silicone Wristbands