Essen and Monessen: Production, Destruction, and the Process of Renewal

  By Edward D. Levin, Ph.D., Duke University (edlevin@duke.edu)   The industrial revolution was largely fueled by coal. Heavy industry, notably steel mills, provided the infrastructure for this revolution. These mills were constructed along large rivers along which coal and other materials could be easily shipped by barge from mine to mill. These rivers wound … Continue reading Essen and Monessen: Production, Destruction, and the Process of Renewal